4 of 50
In a vegetation community, ______ is the term most associated with
5 of 50
The concept of _____ is most closely associated with climax
6 of 50
The depositional landscape that is most common is the ______.
7 of 50
Volcanic activity occurring deep under the Earth’s crust is called
8 of 50
_____ occurs as the main downward sloping movement of subarctic
and arctic landscapes.
9 of 50
_____ rocks are most closely associated with erosion, compaction,
10 of 50
The _____ zone is located at the base of desert mountain ranges.
This is one of the most prominent areas of active fluvial deposition.
11 of 50
Drainage networks in deserts FREQUENTLY involve _____.
surface runoff into bays
many interior lake
basins of interior
12 of 50
Both tundra and steppe vegetation zones have ________ in common.
enormous average annual temperature
absence of trees
13 of 50
A downthrown crustal block with a steep fault scarp on both sides is a
14 of 50
"Dust Bowl" conditions in the North American Great Plains of the
1930s represented ________.
changes which occurred because the climate
something that will not happen again
15 of 50
Where would one expect a convection current UNDER the surface of
the Earth, directed towards the surface?
In the core
Under midocean ridges
16 of 50
It is now apparent that desertification is
related to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
caused by a mix of natural and human
17 of 50
Which of the following doesn’t belong with the others?
18 of 50
Regarding the development of Earth’s present land surface, the belief
that past and present processes are the same is known as ________.
19 of 50
_____ is the rock debris that accumulates at the base of steep slopes
as a result of gravitational action.
20 of 50
Gravity is the main force causing movement in all of the following
21 of 50
The lithosphere includes the _____.
crust and organic materials on the
crust and upper mantle
hot, flexible portion of the mantle
lower, rigid portion of the mantle
22 of 50
_____ plants are characterized by condensing an entire life cycle into
just a few days following a rain, followed by a long period of dormancy.
23 of 50
Mass wasting occurs most often as a result of _____.
24 of 50
The taiga or _____ is suited to the subarctic climate type and is
characterized by bogs caused by frozen subsoil and conifers.
25 of 50
Which one of the following would cause a loss of erosive effectiveness
of stream flow?
Steepening the stream gradient
Increasing channel roughness
Decreasing the resistance of the
26 of 50
Vertical displacement is NOT usually noticeable as a result of a _____
27 of 50
The east side of the Sierra Nevadas exhibits many vertically displaced
blocks known as _____.
28 of 50
Most small streams in arid climates are _____.
29 of 50
Streams are limited by how deeply they may cut. This limitation is
determined by _____.
30 of 50
Since the 1960s, the cause of plate tectonics has been identified to be
31 of 50
Folding of crustal rocks usually results from _____ over _____ periods
lateral compression; short, intense
lateral compression; long
horizontal compression; short,
horizontal compression; long
32 of 50
A natural change in vegetation patterns that occurs sequentially is (a)
33 of 50
The tropical deciduous forest has a thick, diverse understory of plant
growth due to a short but pronounced
34 of 50
A(n)_____ is closely related to the concept of the boundary between
middle latitude grassland and middle latitude forest.
35 of 50
Rivers such as the Nile or Colorado that originate in humid regions
and then flow through arid landscapes are called _____ streams.
36 of 50
The concept of "relief" is illustrated by which of the following?
The cessation of volcanic activity
Uplift of sediments after erosion of overlying sediments
The vertical distance between lowest and highest points in an
The substitution of one subaerial process for another
37 of 50
In _____ weathering, a common result of oxidation in the lithosphere
38 of 50
Most alluvial fans are _______.
in the centers of basins
in mountain canyons
composed of poorly sorted
composed of bedrock
39 of 50
The most common drainage pattern in the world is controlled by the
underlying land structure and is called a_____ pattern.
40 of 50
Which of the following pairs of causes and effects is typically a true
External process: decrease local relief
External processes: poorly understood
Internal processes: wearing-down and
External processes: creative and uplifting
41 of 50
The drainage pattern that resembles the veins on the underside of a
leaf is a _____ pattern.
42 of 50
As plate edges in a _____ zone crumpled, the Himalayas were
43 of 50
The type of species removal that occurs when vegetation is naturally
replaced by anothe
r group is termed _________.
44 of 50
Evidence of Wegener’s theory of continental drift is supported by
major rivers appearing to continue from one continent to another.
distributions of coal deposits appearing to continue from one continent to
the lack of glacial deposits on southern continents.
the present day existence of Pangaea in the Atlantic Ocean.
45 of 50
A fault is distinguished from a joint in that _____.
joints are a feature of only cold climates
there is a wider gap between two sides of a joint
there is no difference between faults and joints
there is no movement or displacement along
46 of 50
A type of weathering where joints that are curved and concentric break
away in successive layers is called ________.
47 of 50
In order to emphasize differences in elevation, the vertical scale of a
topographic profile _____.
is always five times (5 X) the horizontal
is always one-fifth (1/5) the horizontal scale
can be drawn with vertical exaggeration
can be drawn with horizontal exaggeration
48 of 50
At the same latitudes north and south of the Equator, tree lines occur
at different altitudes due to _________.
the varying solar radiation received by each hemisphere
the presence of few mountains in the Southern Hemisphere
the Sun usually being higher in the sky in the Northern
49 of 50
Most of the big game mammals in Africa are naturally adapted to
50 of 50
The difference in altitude between the lowest and highest points in an
area is known as