geography writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
"Please note that you have been officially assigned to research Ratatouille (France) to compose your Individual Exercise. I also wanted to mention that I have found on the web a traditional recipe that you may use to complete the table: https://www.fromachefskitchen.com/ratatouille/#Ing... This recipe includes more than the required number of ingredients to complete this portion of the assignment (10). Note that you may include the 10 most important ingredients in your table, if you wish to do so - this will facilitate your analysis of the information included here (table) since 1 ingredient will be equivalent to 10% of the total. While completing the table, please remember to cite any plant/animal by-product following the samples included in the Instructions files. For example: olive (oil), pepper (black), grapes (white wine), chili pepper (flakes), tomatoes (diced), etc. In addition, please remember that the main source to find the origin/region of domestication of the plants and animals that are part of your recipe can be found in the map Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication (Getis et al. 2009: 222) ["et al." must be written in Italics], which must be cited both in your table or essay, and in your bibliography page. Finally, note that the only plant/animal that may be considered native in your recipe will be salt. This is because France is not included in the Mediterranean region of domestication, making your dish an excellent example of globalization
Requirements: answer all
Geography of Food Exercise: Checklist (Rubric)
Include your name, date, and a title in the first page of your work. Your work must include the following sections in this order: Title, Table, Map, Essay, and Bibliography.
1) Table (25%)*: Your table must include the following information:
A title with the name of the dish and the claimed country of origin of your dish at the top and before introducing your table.
The table must include two columns with the following information:
First column: a list of at-least 10 ingredients.
If using a by-product of any plant or animal, then the main source of your ingredient must be included first and then, using parenthesis, include the name of the by-product. For example: tomato (paste); goat (cheese); wheat (flour), olive (oil).
If your dish does not include 10 ingredients, you can add sides to complete this
requirement (i.e., a salad, steamed vegetables, etc. that are traditional companions
sides- when these dishes are served).
The second column must include the region of domestication of these ingredients using the Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication map provided (Getis et al. 2009: 282), or any other reputable source. If you are using another source, meaning a reputable source (which must be included in your Bibliography), the regions of domestication of these ingredients must be included in your table using the regions provided on the map. For example, if the source you are using states that an ingredient was domesticated in ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia, this ingredient would have been domesticated in the Mediterranean or the Southwest Asia region of domestication, respectively.
If your dish includes an animal or plant that is native (also called indigenous) to the claimed country of origin of your dish, you must include it in your table as native or indigenous. In most cases these will apply to seafood caught locally or salt. Note that the map Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication show that parts of Europe are included in the Mediterranean region of domestication (not including France). So, in case you are using a dish from, for example, Spain (which is included in the Mediterranean region), you must include in your table all ingredients domesticated here as either Mediterranean or Native, but not both.
If your dish includes an ingredient that was domesticated in two regions, include the one that is closest to Europe. Some examples include cattle (Mediterranean and Southwest Asia) or rice (West Africa and South and Southeastern Asia).
Although not required in this section, your work may include a chart with the basic statistics of your dish next to your table. This information is required to be included in your essay when you answer the where question (origin of these ingredients). In this chart you must include
the contributions of each region of domestication to the make-up of your dish. Completing this portion will be very easy because you are required to include ten items (ingredients) in your work, and each item equals to ten percent of the total number of ingredients included in your dish (i.e., 5 items will correspond to 50%).
*Note: If your table includes incorrect information (plants and animals not domesticated in the regions cited in your work/table), this fact will make your work inaccurate (including your table and essay), and will be reflected in your grade (5% discount in the final grade for each item that falls within this category).
Map (25%)*: Your map must include the following information:
Title (i.e., The Geography of (name of your dish) (country of origin).
Orientation arrow pointing to the geographical north.
A legend that includes all symbols used in your map (i.e., flow lines, native ingredients icon).
Labels for each region of domestication included in your recipe, and the shapes of
these regions boundaries.
A label for the claimed country of origin of your dish located in its exact position. Use an arrow connecting the country label to the exact position of this country if necessary.
Flow lines that connect the regions of domestication of the ingredients included in your dish and the claimed country of origin. The width of the flow lines must represent the contribution of each region of domestication as well.
*Note: Each of these items is worth 5% of the final grade for this assignment.
Essay (45%)*: Your essay must include the following information and other requirements listed below:
Meet the minimum required number of words for the essay (800 words). This word count does not include the Bibliography, Table, Map, and other information included in other sections of your work.
Demonstrate knowledge of the topic using key definitions (i.e., cultural diffusion
relocation and expansion diffusion-, the Columbian Exchange, globalization, etc.).
Include at-least one pertinent reference (textbook or a reputable source) that relates to your dish, and introduce this source by making a notation in your work (as a direct quote or in your own words; see PPT for details).
Your essay must answer three broad questions (Where? Why [and how]? and, So what?) that any geographically-based work must include.
Do not include the preparation (recipe) of your dish in your essay. This is irrelevant to the purpose of this exercise, and will not be counted towards the minimum word requirement. A 10% discount in the final grade for this assignment will also apply.
Format your work following all technical aspects: 12-point font (Arial, Times New Roman, Garamond, or Book Antiqua), one-inch margins all around, double-spaced, and, number the pages. Not following this format will result in a 10% discount in the final grade for this assignment.
*Note: In this section you will be evaluated in terms of the detail and thoroughness of the information you provide, showing knowledge of the key definitions used by geographer when analyzing such topics. This means that your analysis should be as descriptive and detailed as possible. Remember that this is a geography exercise and spatial distribution should be highlighted in your analysis (essay).
Bibliography (5%)*: This section can also be referred as References or Works Cited (use only one title) in your work.
It is a course requirement to include pertinent sections of our course textbook in all written assignments; both in the essay portion (Ostergren and Le Bosse 2011) and in the Bibliography page.
Include on a separate page using one of the following titles only,
Bibliography/References/Works Cited, a full reference of all the works cited in your essay.
b) Include all the reference cited in the Bibliography/References/Works Cited in your Essay.
*Note: Missing to include either a) or b), or both in your work will lead to a 5% discount in the final your grade of this assignment.
Individual Exercise: The Geography of Food
Deconstructing a Dish: Claimed country of origin & IngredientsIn this exercise you will compose an essay basedo a traditional European dish. Only one student will be allowed to work on a particular dish, so you must send me a message with the name of the dish you wish to use to compose your exercise and the Europe country where it originates.i.e., Shepard's pie (Scotland)Moussaka (Greece)Assignments will be based on a first-come first-serve basis, so it is a good idea if you send me more than one choice.
Deconstructing a Dish: Claimed country of origin & IngredientsIn this exercise you will compose an essay basedo a traditional European dish. Only one student will be allowed to work on a particular dish, so you must send me a message with the name of the dish you wish to use to compose your exercise and the Europe country where it originates.The title of your essay will be: The Geography of _________(here you will add the name of the dish you are using).Your essay must first describe the claimed area of origin of the dish. Many countries claim to be the place where a dish originates; recipes are not the same. Ceviche(lime-marinated raw seafood);Arrozcon pollo(chicken and rice).
After selecting your dish
Enumerate all the ingredients that are included in your recipe. Your recipe must have 10 ingredients.If your dish does not include 10 ingredients, include some sides (i.e., salad). Include the basic elements that make up your recipe and, in parenthesis, its form. not any processed food. Some examples: oil (i.e., olive, corn, etc.), sausages (i.e., beef, pork, turkey?),tomato (paste).
Area of DomesticationNext, you will find the area where each of these elements (ingredients) were domesticated.Note that most plants and animals that are used in many recipes have been domesticated in faraway regions where these recipes were developed.For example, although arrozcon pollois a local favorite in some European and Latin American countries, chicken were domesticated in Southeast Asia, garlic and cilantro were domesticated in the Mediterranean region, and introduced to the Americas after the arrival of the European conquistadors.
Centers of Plant and Animal DomesticationSource: Getis, A., Getis, J. and J. Fellmann. 2008. Introduction to geography. New York: McGraw Hill.
Native/Indigenous IngredientsIf your recipe include/s ingredient(s) that were domesticated in the same region where your dish is original from, or it is harvested locally like a mineral (i.e., salt) or a native plant or animal species that is caught locally (i.e., fish, shellfish, etc.), these will be referred to as native or indigenous ingredients.For example: if you are using an Italian or Greek recipe, and it includes garlic, olives, grapes, these will be noted in your table as native/indigenous.You can also use the name of the region of domestication (i.e., Mediterranean).
Ingredients not Listed in the Map?If some of the ingredients that are included in your recipe are not listed in this map, you can google it.However, I would highly recommend you to usethe following website develop by Purdue University: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Here you can use their search engine to find the specific crops that you are looking for: (go to) CropSearch.
The Geography of CevicheClaimed country of origin:PeruIngredients:Region of origin: ?1. Fish/Shellfish2. Salt3. Chili pepper4. Garlic5. Cilantro6. Lime7. Black pepper8. Onion9. Corn10. Sweet potato
Centers of Plant and Animal DomesticationSource: Getis, A., Getis, J. and J. Fellmann. 2008. Introduction to geography. New York: McGraw Hill.
Table (25% of your final grade)The Geography of CevicheClaimed country of origin: PeruIngredients:Region of origin:1. Fish/ShellfishNative/Indigenous2. SaltNative/Indigenous3. Chili pepperMeso-America 4. GarlicMediterranean5. CilantroMediterranean6. LimeSouth and Southeast Asia7. Black pepperSouth and Southeast Asia8.OnionSouthwest Asia9. CornMeso-America10. Sweet potatoMeso-America
Basic StatsIngredients (10) =100%Native/Indigenous (2) =20%Meso-America (3) =30%Mediterranean (2) =20%South and SE Asia (2) =20%Southwest Asia (1) =10%
Making your Map (25% of your final grade)
Map ElementsA) Title: The Geography of Ceviche (top center).B) Legend: in a box at the lower left (or right) corner.This must include all symbols used in the map (flow lines/arrows using different colors for each region if you wish).C) If the map you are using does not have the names of the regions where your ingredients originate, include them in the map using labels.Your map must also include the shape of the regions of plant and animal domestication.D) Orientation arrow pointing to the North (upper right-hand side).
Line SymbolsIsoline mapsLines of constant valueFlow-line mapsPortray linear movement between placesMigration patternsin the US in the 1950s.
Basic StatsIngredients (8) =100%LegendNative/Indigenous (3) =37.5%Mediterranean (2) =25%South and SE Asia (2) =25%Southwest Asia (1) =12.5%Note that the isolines used to represent the contribution of the Mediterranean and South and SE Asia regions of domestication (2 ingredients each) are twice the size of the one used to represent the contribution of SW Asia (1 ingredients).
Dont forget to include these shapesfor the areas of domestication (see sample map)Source: Getis, A., Getis, J. and J. Fellmann. 2008. Introduction to geography. New York: McGraw Hill.
The Geography of CevichePeruNative Ingredients (2): 20%1 Ingredient: 10%2 Ingredients: 20%3 Ingredients: 30%NMediterraneanSouthwest AsiaSouth and Southeast AsiaAndean UplandsMeso-America
Essay (45%) and Bibliography (5%)In this section you must de-construct and re-construct all the elements (ingredients) that are included in your dish, highlighting the area of origin of the ingredients, and the claimed area of origin of the dish. This is an integral part of your work and must be as detailed as possible. Remember that this is a geography exercise and spatial distribution should be highlighted in your analysis. Your essay must include comments of the number of ingredients that can be considered native (originated in the domestication region where the claimed country of origin if this is the case) and exotic (non-native/introduced species).
Essay (45%) and Bibliography (5%)In this section you will be evaluated in terms of the detail and thoroughness of the information you provide. This means that your analysis should be as descriptive and detailed as possible. For example, you can start by making a basic statistical analysis commenting the contribution of each region of domestication using percentages. This essay should be at-least800 words in length. You must also demonstrate knowledge of the topic, using key definitions, and include at-least one reference from our course textbook and one additional reference(book or a reputable website) that relates to your favorite dish (not WIKIPEDIA!).This can include a source that describes the recipe you are using. You must include this reference in a separate page (Bibliography/Reference), making a full citation of this source.
Suggested Structure of the Essay:Questions that must be answered using a geographical perspective/analysisAny geographically-based essay must answer three broad questions: Where? Why?(and how?), and,So what? (or,why is this important?).For example:Whereis the center of domestication of the plants and animals included in your recipe?Why (and how) were these (plants and animals) ingredients introduced to the region where these recipes were developed?The So what? (or, in other words, why is this important?) question is an overview of the principleelements of your recipe and must include a conclusions paragraph of your analysis.
Structure of the Essay:IntroductionIntroducethe topic of globalizationin the context of this assignment, using key definitions:Food as an indicator of cultural identity (ethnic, national, regional, etc.).Globalization (why your dish is or is nota good example of globalization?).Cultural Diffusion:Expansion Diffusion (i.e., The Agriculture Revolution; ingredients introduce from nearby regions of domestication).Relocation Diffusion(i.e., the Age of Discovery and Colonization, the Slave Trade, The Columbian Exchange; ingredients introduced from far away locations i.e., Andean Uplands or Meso-American ingredients used in European dishes).Acculturation/Cultural Hybridization (i.e., the use of chili peppers (Meso-American) in some European dishes.
Structure of the Essay:Description and Analysis ConclusionsDescribethe origin (region of domestication) of the ingredients included in your recipeAnswer here the Wherequestion(how many ingredients are considered native? how many are introduced exotic? What is the relative contribution of each region of domestication to the make-up of your dish?).Analyzehow the exotic (non-native) ingredients were introduce to the region/country of origin of your dish, answering the Whyand Howquestions.Show knowledge of the terms cultural diffusion by stating which ingredients were introduced by expansion diffusion? which were introduced by relocation diffusion? [ingredients domesticated in the Americas and used in European dishes are examples of relocation diffusion and its most salient example: The Columbian Exchange).Conclusions: Answer the question, Why is your dish a good example of globalization (or not)? (So what? or, why is this important?).
Do not include the preparation (recipe) of your dish in your essay.This is irrelevant to the purpose of this exercise.Works that include this information will receive a 10-point discount.
Key Definitions:Mobility: Expansion and Relocation Diffusion?Relocation diffusion occurs when individuals migrate to far away locations carrying new ideas, materials (i.e., plant and animals), or practices with them. Expansion diffusion correspond to nearby locations (i.e., introduction of plants of animals to Europe from Southwest Asia or Mediterranean ingredients to northern Europe).A prime example of relocation diffusionis the migration of Christianity with European settlers who came to America, or the introduction of plants and animals. In this last case we are referring to the Columbian Exchange (a prime example of relocation diffusion).
MobilityTypes of diffusion:Relocation;Expansion:Contagious;Hierarchical;Stimulus.
Key Definitions and Example:Relocation Diffusion: The Columbian ExchangeThe arrival of Europeans to the Americas brought two worlds previously isolated into contact.This led to environmental changes that transformed the peoples, economies, and landscapes of both continents.The Columbian Exchange resulted from the introduction of exotic biological material from both sides of the Atlantic.The exchange of plantsis the most widespread and long-lasting impact of the exchange, affecting peoples and landscapes around the world(i.e., potatoes, manioc/cassava, corn, tomatoes, chilies, chocolate, tobacco).
Transported European LandscapeSpaniards introduced horses, pigs, cattle, sheep, wheat, barely, olives, and grapes transforming the Latin American and Caribbean landscapes.Sugarcane! The two systems merged and altered each other in different ways, changing the economic culture of both groups.
Bibliography (5%)You must include at-least one pertinent reference in your essay portion making a notation.i.e., Quotation:This dish defines what it means to be a true Cuban citizen (Castro 2013: 55).i.e., In your own words:According to some authors, this dish defines citizenship in Cuban culture (Castro 2013).You must also include a full referenceof this source in a separate page (Bibliography/References).i.e., Castro, F. 2013. Ropavieja: The true story. La Habana, Cuba: FideliusPress.
Technical AspectsYour paper must conform to the following formatting:12-point font (Arial, Times New Roman, Garamond, or Book Antiqua), One-inch margins all around, Double-spaced, and, Number the pages. Any exercise that does not follow this format will receive a 10-point discount in the final grade for this assignment.
The Checklist (Rubric)In the course website you will find in the Individual Exercise section four items: The Instructions (word document).This presentation (PPT).The Checklist (Rubric).The Turnitin.com icon where you will upload your work.The checklist (rubric) provides detail information about the requirements of each section and their weights. Before submitting your work, go through this list to make sure your work is complete.
Final DetailsYou must upload your work using the Turnitin.com link located in the Assignment Dropbox section of the course webpage. Your answer must be your own, original thoughts. If you plagiarize your thoughts from a website, journal, or any other source, not only you will be sad because you cannot write the small number of words of your own, but because you will earn a failing grade in the class.LATE WORK WILL BE ACCEPTED BUT WILL RECEIVE A 10-POINT DISCOUNT FOR EACH WEEK IT IS LATE. The weekly point-deduction will be applied starting on the next day after the deadline.
Please send me a message as soon as possible with your selections, which must include the name of the dish and the country of origin.Remember, only one person will be allowed to use a dish to compose their exercise.
Questions?Send me a message as soon as possible.
Individual Exercise: Geography of Food
Note: this exercise includes three documents that you must review: a) this Instructions (word doc); b) the Power Point Presentation file of this Instructions (PPT); and, c) a checklist/rubric (word doc). It is your responsibility to read and understand these instructions.
In this exercise you will compose an essay based on any traditional European dish recipe. Only one student will be allowed to work on a particular dish, so you must send the professor of the course a message with the name of the dish you wish to use to compose your exercise and the European country where it originates. Please include in your message a list of at-least three traditional dishes and include the name of the country of origin of these recipes.
The title of your essay will be: The Geography of (here you will include the name of your dish of choice). Your essay must first mention the claimed area of origin of this dish. We refer to the claimed area of origin of your particular dish because there are many countries that claim to be the place where a dish originated. For example, in Europe and in Latin America there are many states that claim to be the country of origin of arroz con pollo (chicken and rice).
When you chose the dish you will be researching, the first thing you must do is to make a reference of the origin (country) where it is believed to originate. This is very important because there could be a regional variation in terms of the ingredients that are used to make the dish in question. For example, in many countries that claim to be the place of origin of chicken and rice, cilantro is a basic
ingredient, while in other countries this is unthinkable (Many people would say, This is not chicken and rice!).
Then you will proceed to enumerate all the ingredients that are included in your recipe. It is required that the recipe that you chose have 10 ingredients. If the original recipe does not include 10 ingredients, then you can add some sides that are traditionally served with this dish (i.e., a salad, rice). For this portion of your work (table), you must include the basic elements that make up your recipe and not any processed food. By this I mean that, for example, if the recipe you are using requires to use oil, you must clearly state the type of oil that you use (i.e., olive, corn, etc.), or, for instance, sausages (are these made mainly of beef, pork, turkey, etc.?), or if it include tomato paste, just include the name tomato in your table and add in parenthesis the word paste [i.e. tomato (paste); pork (sausage); olive (oil)] and make a reference in the essay portion of the exercise.
Next, you will find the area where each of these elements were domesticated or, if it is harvested locally like a mineral (i.e., salt) or it is a plant or animal species that is harvest/caught locally (i.e., fish, shellfish, etc.), these will be referred to as native or indigenous ingredients. For example, garlic,
grapes, and, olives were domesticated in the Mediterranean region. If you are using a recipe original from Italy or Greece, and it includes any of these ingredients, you can refer to them in your table as Mediterranean or native/indigenous (use only one term in your table). Of course, you will have to comment this fact in your essays. Note that most plants and animals that are used to elaborate these dishes have been domesticated in faraway regions where these recipes were developed. For example, although chicken and rice is a local favorite in a few European countries, chicken were domesticated in Southeast Asia, and garlic and cilantro in the Mediterranean.
To find the area of domestication of the most commonly used plant and animal species found in these recipes, you must use the map provided at the end of this document (Map: Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication) and in the attached PowerPoint presentation. If some of the ingredients that are included in your recipe are not listed in this map, I would highly recommend you to use the following website develop by Purdue University: . Here you can use their search engine to find the specific crops that you are looking for: (go to) CropSearch. Most important of all, as mentioned in the course syllabus and syllabus quiz, students are not allowed to use Wikipedia in this course and, if this is the case, will result in a significant point deduction in any such works.
TABLE (25% of the final grade): After listing all 10 ingredients included in your dish of choice, you will then proceed to create a table that includes the names of all the ingredients that make up the recipe of your favorite dish, and the region of domestication of these plants and/or animals, or country of origin. Remember, all ingredients that are original from the claimed country (or region) of origin should be referred as Native/Indigenous you can also include the name of the region of domestication as well. For example, if you are researching a dish original from Greece, Italy, or Spain, any ingredient included in your dish that was also domesticated in the Mediterranean region (i.e., garlic, cilantro, parsley, cattle, etc.) should be included in your table as domesticated in the Mediterranean or included as a Native ingredient (use only one term only in your work). Your Table should be included in the first section of your work. Please see sample table provided at the end of this document. Note that, if your table states that some ingredients were domesticated in a region were this/these element/s were not domesticated, this fact will make your table, your map, and analysis essay inaccurate, and you could lose many points. Your work must be very precise when it comes to these facts since they are the baseline of this exercise. The main source to find the region of domestication of plants and animals is the map Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication (Getis et al. 2009: 282) is included at the end of these Instructions and must be cited in your essay and bibliography page.
MAP (25% of the final grade for this assignment): You will then plot the information included in your Table in the attached blank world map. If you are not proficient making maps on a computer, you may print the blank map provided, enter all the required information using your own handwriting (working as neat as you can; by-the-way, this is not a work of art), scan your document, and paste it into your word document. The map must be included after the table, and before the essay portion.
You must use different labels to represent the regions of origin of the ingredients of your dish of choice. Your map must also include the boundaries of each of the regions of domestication of the world where your ingredients originated (include only the borders of the regions). You can find this information in the Map: Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication as well. Note that there can be several ingredients that have the same source of origin. For example, potatoes, guinea pigs, tomatoes, papaya, lima beans, pumpkin, strawberries, etc., have the same origin: Andean Uplands.
You should also include in your map flow-lines that connect the region of origin of the
ingredients to the claimed country/region of origin of your dish. The width of these flow lines should be adjusted to represent the number of ingredients originating in the different centers of domestication. For example, if the contribution of the Meso-American region to your dish is three (3) ingredients and the contribution of the Andean Upland region is only one (1) ingredient, then the flow line that connects Meso-America with the claimed country of origin of this dish should be 3-times wider than the one flowing from the Andean Upland region.
Since using the flow lines to represent the Native/Indigenous ingredients is not an option, you should use a symbol (i.e., a circle, a triangle) that represents the number of these ingredients. This symbol must be placed inside the claimed country of origin of your favorite dish, and must be included in your legend as well.
Every map must include the following information: title (i.e., The Geography of );, an arrow and an N (north) sign on top [of the arrow] pointing to the geographical north (place it on the upper right hand side of the map); a legend indicating the values of your flow lines that connect the source regions of domestication with the claimed country of origin of your favorite dish (include the value of the flow lines only, not the names of the regions of domestication); and any other information
included in your map (see map sample included in the PPT: The Geography of Ceviche).
THE ESSAY - DATA ANALYSIS (45%) AND BIBLIOGRAPY (5%): In this section you
must include all the elements (ingredients) that are included in your dish of choice, highlighting the area of origin of the ingredients, and the claimed area of origin of the dish. This is an integral part of your work and must be as detailed as possible. Remember that this is a geography exercise and spatial
distribution should be highlighted in your analysis. Your essay must also include comments of the number of ingredients that can be considered native (originated in the domestication region where the claimed country of origin if this is the case) and exotic (non-native/introduced species).
In this section you will be evaluated in terms of the detail and thoroughness of the information you provide. This means that your analysis should be as descriptive and detailed as possible. For example, you can start by making a very basic statistical analysis commenting the contribution of each region of domestication using percentages (see PPT sample). ,
This essay should be at-least 800 words in length. Please note that the word count does not include your name, PID number, date, titles, the information included in the tables, map, or bibliography sections. You must also demonstrate knowledge of the topic and include a reference from the textbook and at-least one additional reference (book or a popular news forum) included in the essay portion that relates to your favorite dish. This can include a reputable website that describes the recipe you are using. For instance, the textbook mentions the key word foodways, which may be very useful to your analysis, or include information from the Vignette: Food and Diet in Premodern Europe.
Furthermore, several sections of Chapter # 4 of our textbook make special emphasis in this topic,
including: The Soil of Our Fathers: Europeans and the Land, or the section Environmental Change Over the Ages (pay special attention to the section Introduction of Exotics, which contains very useful information to co
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