A case-control study of the relationship between cigarette smoking
Consider each of the following scenarios and state whether the variable in question is a confounder:
A case-control study of the relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer. In the study coffee drinking is associated with smoking and is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer among both smokers and nonsmokers. Is coffee drinking a confounder in the study?
A study of the relationship between contact lens use and the risk of eye ulcers. The crude relative risk is 3.0 and the age-adjusted relative risk is 1.5. Is age a confounder in this study?
A study of the relationship between exercise and heart attacks that is conducted among men who do not smoke. Is gender a confounder in this study?
A cohort study of the risk of liver cirrhosis among female alcoholics. Incidence rates of cirrhosis among alcoholic women are compared with those among nonalcoholic women. Nonalcoholic are individually matched to alcoholic on a month and year of birth. Is age a confounder in this study?