Week 1 quiz
â€¢ Question 1 How are potassium and sodium transported across
â€¢ Question 2 What causes the rapid change in the resting
membrane potential that initiates an action potential?
â€¢ Question 3 A patient wants to know the risk factors for
Down syndrome. What is the nurseâ€™s best response?
â€¢ Question 4 In teaching a patient with cirrhosis, which
information should the nurse include regarding cholesterol?
â€¢ Question 5 During childhood, the thymus decreases in size,
and this is referred to as _____ atrophy.
â€¢ Question 6 A nurse is reviewing the pedigree chart. When
checking for a proband, what is the nurse looking for?
â€¢ Question 7 A cell is isolated, and electrophysiology
studies reveal that the resting membrane potential is â€“70 millivolts. The
predominant intracellular ion is Na+, and the predominant extracellular ion is
K+. With voltage change, which of the following would result in an action
â€¢ Question 8 A 12-year-old male is diagnosed with
Klinefelter syndrome. His karyotype would reveal which of the following?
â€¢ Question 9 When a patient asks what causes cystic
fibrosis, how should the nurse respond? Cystic fibrosis is caused by an _____
â€¢ Question 10 A runner has depleted all the oxygen available
for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle
â€¢ Question 11 Why is potassium able to diffuse easily in and
out of cells?
â€¢ Question 12 What is the role of cytokines in cell
â€¢ Question 13 A nurse is teaching a patient with diabetes
how glucose is transported from the blood to the cell. What type of transport
system should the nurse discuss with the patient?
â€¢ Question 14 A 50-year-old male was recently diagnosed with
Huntington disease. Transmission of this disease is associated with:
â€¢ Question 15 The nurse is teaching staff about the most
common cause of Down syndrome. What is the nurse describing?
â€¢ Question 16 A patient has severe mental retardation caused
by a deletion of part of chromosome 5. What genetic disorder will the nurse see
documented in the chart?
â€¢ Question 17 A eukaryotic cell is undergoing DNA
replication. In which region of the cell would most of the genetic information
â€¢ Question 18 The nurse would be correct in identifying the
predominant extracellular cation as:
â€¢ Question 19 A group of prison inmates developed
tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues
were soft and granular (like clumped cheese). Which of the following is the
most likely cause?
â€¢ Question 20 A patient who has diarrhea receives a
hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride
lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?
â€¢ Question 21 The early dilation (swelling) of the cellâ€™s
endoplasmic reticulum results in:
â€¢ Question 22 After a geneticist talks to the patient about
being a chromosomal mosaic, the patient asks the nurse what that means. How
should the nurse respond? You may _____ genetic disease(s).
â€¢ Question 23 A 13-year-old girl has a karyotype that reveals
an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present. What
medical diagnosis will the nurse observe on the chart?
â€¢ Question 24 Sodium and water accumulation in an injured
cell are a direct result of:
â€¢ Question 25 An aide asks the nurse why people who have
neurofibromatosis will show varying degrees of the disease. Which genetic
principle should the nurse explain to the aide?
Week 2 quiz
Question 1 A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture
secondary to osteoporosis. This condition is caused by an increase in bone:
Question 2 After studying about fungi, which information
indicates a correct understanding of fungi? Fungi causing deep or systemic
Question 3 A 70-year-old female presents with a hip
fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely
contributed to her condition is:
Question 4 Tinea corporis (ringworm) is a _____ infection of
Question 5 A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with SLE. Which
of the following findings would be considered a symptom of this disease?
Question 6 A 4-month-old female is diagnosed with atopic
dermatitis (AD). Which of the following assessment findings by the nurse will
most likely support this diagnosis?
Question 7 A 4-month-old male is brought to his primary care
provider for severe itching and skin lesions. He is diagnosed with atopic
dermatitis. Which of the following would be elevated in this patient?
Question 8 What common symptom should be assessed in
individuals with immunodeficienc
Question 9 Which of the following people is at highest risk
for the development of gout?
Question 10 A 42-year-old female presents with raised red
lesions with a brownish scale. She was diagnosed with discoid lupus
erythematosus. A clinician recalls this disorder is related to:
Question 11 A 20-year-old female presents with vaginal itch
and thin-walled pustular lesions. She is diagnosed with candidiasis. This
condition is caused by a:
Question 12 A 4-month-old female develops white spots and
shallow ulcers in her mouth. Her pediatrician diagnoses her with thrush. This
condition is caused by:
Question 13 The nurse would correctly identify the medical
term for ringworm as:
Question 14 A 2-month-old female develops diaper dermatitis.
A nurse will monitor this patient for which secondary infection that frequently
accompanies diaper dermatitis?
Question 15 A 5-year-old female develops chickenpox after
exposure at her day care center. This disease is caused by:
Question 16 When a patient asks the nurse what
hypersensitivity is, how should the nurse respond? Hypersensitivity is best
Question 17 A 45-year-old male presents with persistent,
severe stomach pain. Testing reveals a peptic ulcer. Further laboratory tests
reveal the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Which of the following is of
concern for this patient?
Question 18 A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail
gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would
be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?
Question 19 Stress induces sympathetic stimulation of the
adrenal medulla. This causes the secretion of catecholamines, which include:
Question 20 An infant develops a fever secondary to a
bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever?
Question 21 Which patient will develop active immunity? A
Question 22 A 3-year-old is making play cakes in a sandbox
and is eating the play cakes. The sand was also being used by cats as a litter
box and was contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most
likely also be present?
Question 23 A 5-month-old child is admitted to the hospital
with recurring respiratory infections. A possible cause of this condition is:
Question 24 A 65-year-old female is diagnosed with
metastatic breast cancer. She has developed muscle wasting. Which of the
following substances would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the
tumor cells and cause muscle wasting?
Question 25 A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with lobar
pneumonia (lung infection). Which of the following exudates would be present in
highest concentration at the site of this advanced inflammatory response?
Question 26 Which of the following hormones activates
Question 27 Which of the following individuals would be at
greatest risk for an opportunistic infection?
Question 28 A nurse recalls an example of an
immune-complex-mediated disease is:
Question 29 A 30-year-old male is having difficulty
breathing and has been spitting blood. He reports that he began experiencing
this reaction after cleaning his pigeonsâ€™ cages. Testing reveals he is
suffering from allergic alveolitis. Which of the following is he experiencing?
Question 30 An 8-year-old female presents with edema of the
cutaneous and mucosal tissue layers. Her mother reports that the condition is
recurrent and seems to occur more often during stressful situations. The child
is diagnosed with hereditary angioedema. Which of the following is deficient in
Question 31 A 30-year-old female presents to her primary
care provider reporting fatigue, excessive sweating, and increased appetite.
Physical examination reveals protruding eyes, and laboratory testing reveals
hyperthyroidism secondary to autoantibody production. This disorder falls into
the category of type _____ hypersensitivity.
Question 32 When a patient presents at the emergency
department for an allergic reaction, the nurse recognizes the most severe
consequence of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:
Question 33 Exhaustion occurs if stress continues and _____
is not successful.
Question 34 A 50-year-old female experiences decreased blood
pressure, decreased oxygen delivery, cardiovascular shock, and subsequent
death. A complication of endotoxic shock is suspected. Which of the following
is the most likely cause?
Question 35 A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while
playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness,
and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:
Question 36 While planning care for children with cancer,
which information should the nurse remember? Most childhood cancers originate
Question 37 A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer.
Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. A nurse
realizes this cancer would be documented as stage:
Question 38 When histamine is released in the body, which of
the following responses would the nurse expect?
Question 39 After teaching about stress, which information
indicates a correct understanding of stress?
Question 40 During inflammation, the liver is stimulated to
release plasma proteins, collectively known as:
Week 3 quiz
Question 1 A 23-year-old female begins having problems with
tiredness, weakness, and visual changes. Her diagnosis is multiple sclerosis
(MS). What is occurring in the patientâ€™s body?
Question 2 A 16-year-old male took a recreational drug that
altered his level of arousal. Physical exam revealed a negative Babinski sign,
equal and reactive pupils, and roving eye movements. Which of the following
diagnosis will the nurse most likely see on the chart?
Question 3 A 75-year-old female suffers a stroke and now has
difficulty writing and production of language. This condition is most likely
caused by occlusion of the:
Question 4 A 50-year-old male suffers a severe head injury
when his motorcycle hits a tree. His breathing becomes deep and rapid but with
normal pattern. What term should the nurse use for this condition?
Question 5 Which finding indicates the patient is having
complications from heat stroke?
Question 6 A 69-year-old male with a history of alcohol
abuse presents to the emergency room (ER) after a month-long episode of
headaches and confusion. Based on his alcoholism, a likely cause of his
neurologic symptoms is:
Question 7 A 20-year-old male was at the supermarket when he
fell to the ground. Bystanders reported that he lost consciousness and his body
tensed up then relaxed, then tensed and relaxed several times. He most likely
was experiencing a(n):
Question 8 A 60-year-old female with a recent history of
head trauma and a long-term history of hypertension presents to the ER for
changes in mental status. MRI reveals that she had a hemorrhagic stroke. What
does the nurse suspect caused this type of stroke?
Question 9 A 72-year-old male demonstrates left-sided
weakness of upper and lower extremities. The symptoms lasted 24 hours and
resolve with no evidence of infarction. The patient most likely experienced
Question 10 A 15-month-old child from Pennsylvania was
brought to the ER for fever, seizure activity, cranial palsies, and paralysis.
Which of the following diagnosis will be documented in the chart?
Question 11 Parents of a 3-month-old infant bring him to the
emergency room (ER) after he has had a seizure. He has muscle rigidity, and the
parents report they are of Jewish ancestry. For what genetic disease should
this infant be screened?
Question 12 A 15-year-old male was struck by a motor vehicle
and suffered a traumatic brain injury. Paramedics found him unconscious at the
scene of the accident. During the ambulance ride, he regained consciousness and
was able to maintain a conversation with the medical staff. Upon arrival to
hospital, he was alert and oriented. Physical exam reveals confusion and
impaired responsiveness. What is the probable nature of his brain injury based
on this history?
Question 13 A 30-year-old female had a seizure that started
with her fingers and progressively spread up her arm and then extended to her
leg, with no loss of consciousness. How should the nurse chart this?
Question 14 A 20-year-old male was brought to the emergency
room (ER) for severe burns. He requested something for the excruciating pain he
was experiencing. Blocking which of the following neurotransmitters would
reduce his pain?
Question 15 A 65-year-old male recently suffered a cerebral
vascular accident. He is now unable to recognize and identify objects by touch
because of injury to the sensory cortex. How should the nurse document this
Question 16 A patient has memory loss of events that
occurred before a head injury. What cognitive disorder does the nurse suspect
the patient is experiencing?
Question 17 A teenage boy sustains a severe closed head
injury following an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident. He is in a state of
deep sleep that requires vigorous stimulation to elicit eye opening. How should
the nurse document this in the chart?
Question 18 When a patient has a peculiar sensation that
immediately precedes a seizure, what term should the nurse use to describe this
Question 19 When a patient has a fever, which of the
following thermoregulatory mechanisms is activated?
Question 20 A 15-year-old male is brought to the ER for
treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. An MRI reveals spinal
cord injury, and his body temperature fluctuates markedly. The most accurate
explanation of this phenomenon is that:
Question 21 When planning care for a child in pain, which
principle should the nurse remember? The pain threshold in children is _____
that of adults.
A 20-year-old male suffers a severe closed head injury in a
motor vehicle accident. He remains in a vegetative state (VS) 1 month after the
accident. Which of the following structures is most likely keeping the patient
A 40-year-old male complains of uncontrolled excessive
movement and progressive dysfunction of intellectual and thought processes. He
is experiencing movement problems that begin in the face and arms that
eventually affect the entire body. The most likely diagnosis is:
Question 24 Which system modulates a patientâ€™s perception of
Question 25 A nurse should document on the chart that
chronic pain is occurring when the patient reports the pain has lasted longer
Week 4 quiz
1. A 52-year-old female is diagnosed with coronary artery
disease. The nurse assesses for myocardial:
2. A 62-year-old male presents to his primary care provider
reporting chest pain at rest and with exertion. He does not have a history of
coronary artery disease and reports that the pain often occurs at night. He is
most likely experiencing which type of angina?
3. A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was
diagnosed with bronchogenic cancer. He developed edema and venous distention in
the upper extremities and face. Which of the following diagnosis will the nurse
observe on the chart?
4. A 70-year-old female is in the hospital for pelvic
fracture. She develops pulmonary thromboembolism. The nurse realizes this
embolus is composed of:
5. A 75-year-old female has been critically ill with
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for longer than a week and has
developed a severe oxygen supply and demand imbalance. The statement that best
describes this imbalance is which of the following?
6. A nurse monitors the patient for _____ when rapid onset
of malignant hypertension results.
7. A 50-year-old female received trauma to the chest that
caused severe impairment of the primary pacemaker cells of the heart. Which of
the following areas received the greatest damage?
8. Which condition should cause the nurse to assess for
high-output failure in a patient?
9. An 82-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with
confusion and severe hypotension. Her bodyâ€™s compensatory mechanisms are
increased heart rate, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of
interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment. What kind of shock does the
nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?
10. A 65-year-old male is transported to the ER for chest
pain. An electrocardiogram reveals a prolonged QRS interval. What is the nurse
monitoring when the nurse observes the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram?
The QRS complex reflects:
11. Which organ should the nurse monitor closely since it is
often the first to fail in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
12. A 50-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism
(PE). Which of the following symptoms most likely occurred before treatment?
13. A 51-year-old male is at the health clinic for an annual
physical exam. After walking from the car to the clinic, he developed
substernal pain. He also reported discomfort in his left shoulder and his jaw,
lasting 2 to 3 minutes and then subsiding with rest. He indicates that this has
occurred frequently over the past few months with similar exertion. The nurse
suspects he is most likely experiencing:
14. A 65-year-old female presents to the emergency
department reporting difficulty swallowing and shortness of breath. A CT scan
would most likely reveal an aneurysm in the:
15. A 54-year-old male is diagnosed with left bundle branch
block. Which of the following structures would not receive an electrical
16. A 30-year-old Caucasian female was recently diagnosed
with primary hypertension. She reports that she eats fairly well, usually
having red meat and potatoes daily. She also reports that her father has
hypertension as well. A nurse determines which of the following risk factors is
most likely associated with this diagnosis?
17. A 35-year-old male presents with pulmonary hypertension.
Testing reveals he is in right heart failure. Which of the following is the
most likely diagnosis the nurse will see listed on the chart?
18. A 52-year-old male is diagnosed with primary hypertension.
He has no other health problems. Present treatment would cause the nurse to
anticipate administering which drug to the patient?
19. When a nurse checks the patient for orthostatic
hypotension, what did the nurse have the patient do?
20. A patient wants to know what causes atherosclerosis. How
should the nurse respond? In general, atherosclerosis is caused by:
21. A 52-year-old male presents with pooling of blood in the
veins of the lower extremities and edema. The diagnosis is chronic venous insufficiency,
and an expected assessment finding of this disorder is:
22. A 56-year-old male is diagnosed with coronary artery
disease. Which of the following modifiable risk factors would the nurse suggest
the patient change?
23. A 60-year-old male presents to his primary care provider
reporting chest pain. He is diagnosed with atherosclerosis. This disease is
24. Which of the following findings in the patient with
Raynaud disease would indicate a need for further teaching?.
25. A 60-year-old male undergoes surgery for a bone
fracture. Which of the following nursing measures would be most effective for
preventing pulmonary embolism (PE) in this patient?
26. A 65-year-old male presents for a routine checkup. A
blood pressure check reveals a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg and a diastolic
pressure of 70 mm Hg. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this
type of pressure elevation?
27. A 59-year-old female is diagnosed with left ventricular
failure. If a decrease in kidney perfusion occurs, the nurse knows this would
28. While planning care for a patient with superior vena
cava syndrome (SVCS), which principle should the nurse remember? SVCS is a
progressive _____ of the superior vena cava (SVC) that leads to venous distention
of the upper extremities and head.
29. A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary
disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following
heart failures should the nurse assess for in this patient?
Week 5 quiz (30
â€¢ Question 1 An 8-week-old infant presents to her primary
care provider for a well-baby check. Physical exam reveals a murmur, and an
echocardiogram shows a large ventricular septal defect. If left untreated, what
condition should the nurse discuss with the parents?
â€¢ Question 2 A 50-year-old male was admitted to the
intensive care unit with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). He is
being treated for shock. His cardiopulmonary symptoms include low blood
pressure, tachycardia, and tachypnea. His skin is pale and cool. The primary
cause of his shock is most likely:
â€¢ Question 3 A 15-year-old male who is allergic to peanuts
eats a peanut butter cup. He then goes into anaphylactic shock. Which
assessment findings will the nurse assess for?
â€¢ Question 4 A nurse is explaining the function of the
heart. Which is a correct response by the nurse? A function of the pericardium
â€¢ Question 5 A 3-year-old male is diagnosed with Kawasaki
disease. Which of the following does the nurse suspect is the most likely
â€¢ Question 6
A 51-year-old male presents with recurrent chest pain on
exertion. He is diagnosed with angina pectoris. When he asks what causes the
pain, how should the nurse respond? The pain occurs when:
â€¢ Question 7 A 75-year-old obese female presents to her
primary care provider reporting edema in the lower extremities. Physical exam
reveals that she has varicose veins. Upon performing the history, which of the
following is a possible cause for the varicose veins?
â€¢ Question 8 A 30-year-old female presents to her primary
care provider with fever, cardiac murmur, and petechial skin lesions. She is
diagnosed with infective endocarditis. When the patient wants to know what
caused the disease, what is the nurseâ€™s best response? The most likely cause of
the disease is:
â€¢ Question 9 A 20-year-old female is being admitted to the
hospital with fever and septic shock. Which set of assessment findings would
the nurse expect the patient to exhibit?
â€¢ Question 10 A newborn child is diagnosed with tetralogy of
Fallot. What symptoms would the nurse expect to observe in the child?
â€¢ Question 11 A 52-year-old female is admitted to the
cardiac unit with a diagnosis of pericarditis. She asks the nurse to explain
where the infection is. In providing an accurate description, the nurse states
that the pericardium is:
â€¢ Question 12 A 72-year-old female has a history of
hypertension and atherosclerosis. An echocardiogram reveals backflow of blood
into the left ventricle. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis
documented on the chart?
â€¢ Question 13 When a person is in shock, a nurse remembers
impairment in cellular metabolism is cause by:
â€¢ Question 14 A 27-year-old male is admitted to a neurologic
unit with a complete C-5 spinal cord transection. On initial assessment, he is
bradycardic, hypotensive, and hyperventilating. He appears to be going into
shock. The most likely mechanism of his shock is:
â€¢ Question 15 Which is the most common type of congenital
heart defect the nurse should assess for in infants?
â€¢ Question 16 A 67-year-old female was previously diagnosed
with rheumatic heart disease. Tests reveal lipoprotein deposition with chronic
inflammation that impairs blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis recorded on the chart?
â€¢ Question 17 A 1-month-old infant was diagnosed with
truncus arteriosus (TA) with a ventricular septal defect. Which of the
following would the nurse also expect?
â€¢ Question 18 A nurse is teaching staff about endocarditis.
Which information should the nurse include? Inflammatory cells have difficulty
limiting the colonization of microorganisms in infective endocarditis because
â€¢ Question 19 A nurse recalls the most common cardiac valve
disease in the United States, which tends to be most prevalent in young women,
â€¢ Question 20 When a patient with left heart failure starts
to have a cough and dyspnea, which principle should the nurse remember?
Pulmonary symptoms, common to left heart failure, are a result of:
Week 6 quiz (30 questions)
â€¢ Question 1 A 14-year-old male is experiencing an asthma
exacerbation. When reviewing the lab results, which of the following cells in
the submucosa promote this inflammatory response and will be elevated?
â€¢ Question 2 A 2-week-old female presents with fever, cough,
respiratory distress, and empyema. Which of the following is the most likely
diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?
â€¢ Question 3 When the nurse is asked what causes asthma, how
should the nurse respond? Asthma is thought to be caused by:
â€¢ Question 4 A 57-year-old male presents with cough, sputum
production, dyspnea, and decreased lung volume. He is diagnosed with
pneumoconiosis. When taking the patientâ€™s history, which finding is the most
probable cause of his illness?
â€¢ Question 5 Which patient would the nurse assess for
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)? A patient with:
â€¢ Question 6 A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of
smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When a staff member asks why the patientâ€™s
airways are obstructed, how should the nurse respond? The airways are
obstructed because of:
â€¢ Question 7 A 10-year-old male is brought to the ER with
prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. The most likely diagnosis on the
â€¢ Question 8 When the nurse observes a diagnosis of nosocomial
pneumonia, the patient generally acquires this pneumonia:
â€¢ Question 9 A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of
smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was previously exposed to air
pollution, asbestos, and radiation at his job. Which of the following should
the nurse realize had the greatest impact on the development of his cancer
â€¢ Question 10 Which of the following shows a correct cause
and effect sequence in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome
â€¢ Question 11 A nurse is teaching staff about pulmonary
edema. Which information should the nurse include? The most common cause of
pulmonary edema is:
â€¢ Question 12 A 42-year-old male was involved in a motor
vehicle accident during which he suffered a severe head injury. He died shortly
after the accident from loss of respiration. The nurse suspects the area of the
brain most likely involved is the:
â€¢ Question 13 A geneticist is discussing cystic fibrosis
(CF). Which information should be included? CF is an _____ disease.
â€¢ Question 14 A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about
asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway obstruction
contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is
â€¢ Question 15 A 28-year-old male reports to his primary care
provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody
secretions. When giving report, what term should the nurse use to describe this
â€¢ Question 16 A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea,
cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis.
Which of the following will the nurse most likely observe on the culture
â€¢ Question 17 A 20-year-old male is in acute pain. An
arterial blood gas reveals decreased carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Which of the
following does the nurse suspect is the most likely caus
â€¢ Question 18 A 10-year-old female develops pneumonia.
Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that
breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. What term
should the nurse use to document this condition?
â€¢ Question 19 A 30-year-old male is involved in a motor
vehicle accident and sustains trauma to the lungs and chest wall. He
experiences respiratory failure. Which of the following lab values would the
â€¢ Question 20 When the pulmonologist discusses the condition
in which a series of alveoli in the left lower lobe receive adequate
ventilation but do not have adequate perfusion, which statement indicates the
nurse understands this condition? When this occurs in a patient it is called:
Week 7 quiz (35
A nurse is caring for a patient who cannot clot. Which end
product of the clotting cascade is this patient unable to make?
For a patient experiencing hypersplenism, the nurse expects
the erythrocytes to be:
After initial compensation, what hemodynamic change should
the nurse monitor for in a patient who has a reduction